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Cross-currency valuation shows the change in debt stock due to cross-currency valuation effects. Cross-currency valuation effects arise from movements in the value of the U.S. dollar against other world currencies, as well as debt forgiveness or reduction, and affect the value of developing country debt. Countries contract debt in various currencies. The debt data that countries report to the DRS is expressed in the currencies in which the original debt was contracted or in currencies in which it is repayable. For purposes of standardization and aggregation, the DRS converts these amounts into dollar values. The exchange rates used are generally the par values or central rates specified by the IMF or market rates when necessary. Exchange rates in effect at the end of any given year are used to convert the stock of debt outstanding for that year in various currencies into the nominal dollar value. Data are in current U.S. dollars.